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Quantitative determination of macronutrients (NPK) in leafy vegetables in marketed in free trade fairs

ADVANCES IN HORTICULTURE - REVIEW | Dos Santos Viana, J.; Nascimento Gomes, A. M.; Nahuz Lourenço, M. S.; Chagas Filho, E.

Tags: vegetables, food preference, nutritional quality

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The search for good quality hardwood vegetables has grown, and consumers are becoming increasingly demanding as to the appearance, color and size of these products. Chemical quality is one of the main programs used in food control. The objective of this paper was to determine the macronutrient contents in leafy vegetables marketed in open fairs in the city of São Luís. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory of mineral nutrition of plants of the engineering nucleus of the State University of Maranhão. From a universe of 14 hardwood vegetables, six of the highest consumption in five free fairs through the application of questionnaires, were selected. Sulfuric digestion/ hydrogen peroxide and P and K determined the N contents by nitroperchloric digestion. The six leafy vegetables selected were: Lactuca sativa, Allium schoenoprasum, Coriandrum sativum, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Talinum triangulare and Hibiscus sabdariffa. It was verified that the regional vegetables are the most consumed by the population, with emphasis on the non conventional vegetables Hibiscus sabdariffa and Talinum triangulare. The results obtained in the chemical analyses showed potassium and phosphorus deficiency for the samples of Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleraceacapitata in the five fairs studied, indicating inadequate mineral fertilization (excess or deficiency) of these vegetables. While for other unconventional vegetables, more studies are necessary because literature is deficient in information about them.

Micrographic characterization of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) and its application in food botanical quality

FRUTICULTURE | Gimenez, L. A. S.; Vignale, N. D. y Gurni, A. A.

Tags: mild dissociation, scraping, histochemical reaction, micrographic identifiers, genuine foods

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Passiflora edulis Sims, “maracuyá” (passion fruit), is a globally consumed tropical fruit that can be eaten raw (fresh) or processed. The aim of the current work is to establish its micrographic diagnostic values, permitting botanical quality control to be carried out of commercial products derived from the fruits, thereby incorporating added value. Micrographic techniques were applied such as mild dissociation (5% NaOH at 100° for 5 min), scraping and a histochemical reaction with dissolution of Lugol for starch. The micrographic features found were unicellular, conical, rigid hairs wide at the base (70.75 µm), groups of irregular-shaped sclereids (25.08 µm), clusters of calcium oxalate (17.17 µm), thickened parenchymal cells and starch grains (8.37 µm), the final item comprising a complementary reference used only when no thermal actions were involved in product elaboration. Columnar sclereids are also present in the seeds. Most of the products presented botanical quality, with the exception of one in which characters of diagnostic value of the fruit of the pear were identified. These are indispensable characters for verifying the true nature of foods made with "passion fruit".

Influence of the fore crop on weeds community in direct seeding onion

HORTICULTURE | Avilés, L.M.; Baffoni, P.A.; Gajardo, O.A.; Alarcón, A.; Doñate, M.T.; Cañón, S.L.; Bezic, C.R. y Sidoti Hartman, B.

Tags: soybean, corn, carrot, tomato

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Onion plants (Allium cepa L.) have a low competitive capacity against weeds, so these must be controlled from the beginning of the crop cycle. Plant communities respond differently to the management practices used in the fore crops (eg. tillage and fertilization). The objective was to evaluate the effect of different fore crops on the weed communities in direct seeding onion crops. During the 2015/16 season, an onion crop was implanted in the Lower Valley of the Rio Negro by direct seeding in plots with different fore crops: tomato, soybean, corn and carrot. The emergence of weeds was evaluated 15 and 45 days after sowing (DAS). The weeds on the ridge were collected in a 30 x 30 cm frame to determine the number and biomass for each species, and to calculate the richness and diversity. Ten weed species were observed in a cotyledonal state at 15 DAS, without differences between treatments. At 45 DAS, Lamium amplexicaule L., Xanthium spinosum L., Polygonum aviculare L., Picris echinoides L., Sonchusasper L. and Echinochloa crus-galli L. were the most frequent species. The greatest richness, density and diversity was observed after rotation with tomato. The differential response of the weeds to the fore crops would help design the rotations for more efficient weed control in an onion crop.

Productivity of male green asparagus genotypes (Asparagus officinalis var. altilis L.) in their seventh year

HORTICULTURE | Romero, F.; Castagnino, A. M.; Díaz, K. E.; Guisolis, A.; Rosini, M. B.; Rogers, W. J.. Ex Aequo.

Tags: yield, spears, hybrids, seedlings, calibre

PDF 929.2 KB (64 downloads)

Asparagus is a non-traditional perennial vegetable crop for which evaluation of the performance of different genotypes is required. With the aim of determining the productivity of a set of all-male genotypes from Italy, a trial was planted on 22/11/06 using large (PG) and small (PCH) seedlings. The following characters were evaluated: total (PFT) and commercial (PFC) fresh production, total (NTT) and commercial (NTC) spear number, calibre distribution (J: Jumbo; XL: Extra-Large; L: Large; M: Medium; S: Small and A: Asparagina), defects (DE: opened bracts; P: plague damage; and OD: other defects). Thirty-two harvests were carried out between 1/9/14 and 14/11/14. Data were analysed by ANOVA-LSD (P≥0.05). No significant differences were found between the two seedling sizes. From the thirty-two harvests, a mean productivity of 14.5t.ha-1 was obtained, with a commercial prime quality productivity of 5.4 t.ha-1. A total of 553,241 spears were obtained, of which 252,420 were of commercial prime quality, with an average weight of 21 g per spear. Regarding seedling size, no significant differences were found. The Italian genotypes performed better than the control genotype from the USA, with Eros outstanding for PFT, and Ercole, Eros, Italo and H-668 for PFC. For spears produced, significant differences were observed between hybrids: for NTT, Zeno, Eros, Ercole and H-668 stood out, while for NTC, Ercole. Regarding calibre distribution, Italo, UC-157, H-668, Zeno and Eros stood out for J; Eros, Italo, Zeno and H-668 for XL; Eros, Italo, Ercole and H-668, UC-157 and Zeno for L; Ercole, Eros and H-668, and UC-157 for M; UC157 and Ercole for S; and UC-157 and Ercole for A. In conclusion, all male hybrids represent a valuable production alternative.

Microbiological evaluation of leafy vegetables in the Fronteira Oeste region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil

HORTICULTURE | Ferreira, M. B.; Nespolo, C. R.; Brasil, C.C. B.; Bordin, L. C.; Teixeira, B. K.; Model, B. P.; Pinheiro, F. C.

Tags: leafy vegetables, agriculture, food microbiology, food safety

PDF 501.6 KB (23 downloads)

Consumption of leafy vegetables is beneficial, however, the ingestion of contaminated food may cause diseases. The objective of this study was to obtain data on microbiological quality of leafy vegetables produced in the Fronteira Oeste region of Rio Grande do Sul. Samples of lettuce, cabbage leaf, arugula and a mixture of parsley and chive were collected, with quantification of total and thermotolerant coliforms by most probable number method and detection of Salmonella sp. using Petrifilm™ Salmonella Express System. A questionnaire was applied to understand the cultivation system of leafy vegetables used in the region: local, type of fertilizer, water source and surroundings.  Results showed high counts of coliforms ranging from 2.21 to 3.38 MNP/g for total coliforms and from 0.60 to 3.38 log MPN/g for thermotolerant coliforms, and 47% (n=16) of prevalence for Salmonella sp. In addition, 100% (n=8) of arugula, 85.7% (n=6) of parsley and chive, 75% (n=6) of cabbage leaf, and 60% (n=6) of lettuce samples were classified as improper for consumption, mainly in the municipalities of São Borja and Alegrete. The use of fertilizer considered organic and untreated water for irrigation and the presence of animals close to the production could be some of the factors involved in this type of contamination. Microbial contamination indicated unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary quality, which emphasizes the need of good agricultural practices and good handling practices for leafy vegetables in order to reduce health risks to consumers.

Fresh fruit and vegetables wholesale markets in Argentina from the social field perspective

ADVANCES IN HORTICULTURE - REVIEW | Viteri, M. L., Campetella, A. L.

Tags: Commercialization, social actors, food

PDF 752.2 KB (66 downloads)

Fresh fruit and vegetable wholesale markets are known as very important places for economy and society. However, little attention has been paid to them in food studies or political spheres. This lack of wholesale markets` visibility has implications in improving the circulation of healthy foods such as fruit and vegetables. Wholesale markets play an important role as price makers between production and consumption. Wholesale markets link the production of different geographical areas and supply urban consumers of different communities where they are situated. By using qualitative survey, this paper analyses the situation of Argentinean Wholesale Markets nowadays. Wholesale market different aspects were taken into account: market organization (public, private, etc.);building infrastructure (types of floors, internal streets, market access); technology and control (devices to load and unload merchandise, cold chambers, etc.); social actors involved in different activities-including price publishing and trainings (wholesale sellers, civil servants, employees, clients, suppliers, etc.); network (retailers, wholesalers, horticultural associations, consumers, etc.); integration with local production (geographical location of the market, sales volume of local products with respect to extra premises, etc.). The objective of the paper is to know the general state of wholesale markets in Argentina. The information gathered in this survey can be key input to delineate guidelines and state regulations that consolidate these markets as articulating axes between the production and consumption of fruits and vegetables nationwide. Policymakers should agree with all the actors involved in the productive and commercial fruit and vegetable networks to innovate these spaces according to their multiple perspectives and strategies.

Effect of different organic amendments on yield, nutritional value and hygienic-sanitary quality in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

HORTICULTURE | Doñate, M.T., Rodríguez. R.A., Sidoti Hartmann , B.

Tags: Organic food, food safety, Spinacia oleracea L, Río Negro lower valley, organic fertilizers

PDF 642 KB (41 downloads)

Quality and food safety are of concern in the population, leading to a growing demand for organic food. The study was conducted in Viedma, during the production cycles autumn-winter and spring, between 2007 and 2009. Various organic fertilizers were used with different doses, including composted cow manure, onion-manure compost and a commercial organic fertilizer. Crop yield and the mineral content in edible parts were evaluated in each cycle, and at the time of harvesting, hygienic and sanitary quality of the spinach by microbiological analysis and the content of iron and vitamins A and C were determined. The results indicate in both crop cycles that the organic greenhouse spinach production is feasible in this region, with yields exceeding 5000 g m-2 and suitable for human consumption according to the hygienic quality – healthcare obtained in compliance with current regulations. The obtained values of ascorbic acid and beta carotene were higher compared to the reference values of conventionally produced spinach. In all cases the contents of Ca, K, P, Zn and Fe were optimal for crop development.

Optimization of osmotic dehydration combined with hot air drying of European plum

FRUTICULTURE | Veloso, M.E., Pérez de Villarreal, A.A., Núñez, M.M., Pagano, A.M.

Tags: Prunus domestica, osmosis, prunes, osmo-dehydrated products, combined methods, surface response

PDF 612.2 KB (38 downloads)

The osmotic dehydration (DO) of European plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv. President combined with a final stage of hot-air drying (SAC) at 70°C to a final humidity of 20% wet basis was studied. The fresh fruits were pitted and cut into 8 wedges, and then immersed in sucrose solutions of different concentrations (C: 40, 50 and 60 º Brix) during different times (t: 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min). The kinetics of the process was evaluated through monitoring the content of soluble solids (SS) and moisture (M), weight variation (WR), soluble solids gain (SG) and water loss (WL). The analysis of the variance (a = 0.05) showed the effect of t on WL and SG, as well as the influence of the interaction t´C on WR. Using the response surface methodology (RSM), the predictive polynomials of the main variables WL and SG were obtained. The optimization performed by means of desirability analysis applied to maximize WL determined the stationary points t=113 min, C=59.9 °Brix, exactly matching the optimum for SG maximization, thus defining the optimum conditions for maximum dehydration and incorporation of sugars that contribute to product conservation.

Physiological requirements and technological restrictions for sweet pepper cropping.

ADVANCES IN HORTICULTURE - REVIEW | Ludvik, B.; Giardina, E.; Di Benedetto, A.

Tags: intensive cropping, crop ecophysiology, growth, development, yield

PDF 996.6 KB (113 downloads)

The genotypic sweet pepper offer is wide and allows adaption of the commercial crop to different environmental and cultural facilities. However, the choice of a specific pepper genotype with the objective to optimize crop yield requires the knowledge of the endogenous and technological factors involved. Sweet pepper seed price is high while seed germination is slow and heterogeneous which force commercial growers to change the direct sowing for a transplant routine. However, plug trays give different abiotic stresses related to both the cell volume and the growing media quality in vegetables. Vegetative growth rate in sweet pepper is low and limited by the rate of leaf area expansion, which is limited by both the development processes temperature-dependent and the biomass accumulation processes limited by the light photosynthetic flux, water and minerals. Sweet pepper plants flower early and blooming is temperature-dependent. If the grower´s objective is to reach the highest sweet pepper yield per unit area and time, it is critical to know the physiological mechanisms involved which affect the rates of growth and development at different plant stages. In the present paper, the available bibliography related to the physiological processes that control pepper growth and development are compiled. The related available crop technology has been included as well.

Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and cariru (Talinum triangulare) intercropping under two fertilization alternatives in protected cultivation.

HORTICULTURE | Oliveira Cardoso, M.; Cohen Antônio, I.; Fascin Berni, R.; Kano, C.

Tags: Brassica oleracea var acephala, Talinum triangulare, unconventional vegetable, agroeconomic indexes

PDF 918.3 KB (56 downloads)

The intercropping of vegetables is quite common practice among farmers. In this work, kale and cariru intercropping, under two fertilization alternatives in side dressing, as an additive to residual soil fertility in protected cultivation was studied . The trial (30/07/2014 to 17/09/2014) had an experimental design in randomized blocks with three repetitions (2.26 m2) and nine treatments (three systems of cultivation: single kale, single cariru and consortium of kale + cariru; and three managements: test – only water; biofertilizer- 15%, in water; and urea - 1 g L-1 of water).Managements were applied weekly (10 L per plot). The agronomic indexes (fresh mass, kale leaf number and cariru branch number) stood out in single systems, with the performance, excepting kale leaf number, standing out with the use of urea. However, the results of Productive Efficiency, the Efficient Use of Land and Gross Income, keeping consistent with each other, attributed to intercropping better overall utilization of the factors, particularly, with the use of urea.