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Quantitative determination of macronutrients (NPK) in leafy vegetables in marketed in free trade fairs

ADVANCES IN HORTICULTURE - REVIEW | Dos Santos Viana, J.; Nascimento Gomes, A. M.; Nahuz Lourenço, M. S.; Chagas Filho, E.

Tags: vegetables, food preference, nutritional quality

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The search for good quality hardwood vegetables has grown, and consumers are becoming increasingly demanding as to the appearance, color and size of these products. Chemical quality is one of the main programs used in food control. The objective of this paper was to determine the macronutrient contents in leafy vegetables marketed in open fairs in the city of São Luís. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory of mineral nutrition of plants of the engineering nucleus of the State University of Maranhão. From a universe of 14 hardwood vegetables, six of the highest consumption in five free fairs through the application of questionnaires, were selected. Sulfuric digestion/ hydrogen peroxide and P and K determined the N contents by nitroperchloric digestion. The six leafy vegetables selected were: Lactuca sativa, Allium schoenoprasum, Coriandrum sativum, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Talinum triangulare and Hibiscus sabdariffa. It was verified that the regional vegetables are the most consumed by the population, with emphasis on the non conventional vegetables Hibiscus sabdariffa and Talinum triangulare. The results obtained in the chemical analyses showed potassium and phosphorus deficiency for the samples of Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleraceacapitata in the five fairs studied, indicating inadequate mineral fertilization (excess or deficiency) of these vegetables. While for other unconventional vegetables, more studies are necessary because literature is deficient in information about them.

Effects of biostimulant applications on strawberry crop yield and quality

HORTICULTURE | Kirschbaum, D. S.; Heredia, A. M.; Funes, C. F.; Quiroga, R. J.

Tags: humic acids, Fragaria x ananassa, organic amendment, yield

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Argentina, one of the main South American strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) producers, shows an increasing trend to reduce the use of agrochemicals (pesticides and fertilizers), and incorporate bio-inputs. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of MO.14 (a liquid organic amendment, rich in humic and fulvic acids), applied alone or combined with a biological activator (Biomix), on the yield and fruit quality of four strawberry cultivars. A trial was carried out in the 2016 productive season and part of 2017, in Famaillá (Tucumán). Treatments: MO.14 (drench), MO.14 (drench) + Biomix (foliar) and untreated control (T). Cultivars: Benicia, Camino Real, Merced and San Andreas. Yield (total fruit weight/plant, Yld), number of fruits/plant (NF), marketable fruit average weight (MFAW) and percentage of rotten fruits (%RF) were evaluated. Experimental design: CRD with three replications of 30 plants per cultivar and treatment. Data were subjected to ANOVA. Treatments improved Yld and NF, but not %RF and MFAW (genotypic effects prevailed). MO.14 showed Yld and NF values higher than MO.14 + Biomix. Treatment-cultivar interactions were significant for NF. Regarding the cultivars, Merced stood out (Yld, MFAW). In May 2017, when the first harvests of the 2nd year started, biostimulants exceeded T in Yld. Biostimulant treatments could reduce the use of chemical fertilizers in strawberry, contributing to agroecosystem sustainability, although new studies (dose, concentration, number of applications) should validate that.

Effect of different organic amendments on yield, nutritional value and hygienic-sanitary quality in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

HORTICULTURE | Doñate, M.T., Rodríguez. R.A., Sidoti Hartmann , B.

Tags: Organic food, food safety, Spinacia oleracea L, Río Negro lower valley, organic fertilizers

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Quality and food safety are of concern in the population, leading to a growing demand for organic food. The study was conducted in Viedma, during the production cycles autumn-winter and spring, between 2007 and 2009. Various organic fertilizers were used with different doses, including composted cow manure, onion-manure compost and a commercial organic fertilizer. Crop yield and the mineral content in edible parts were evaluated in each cycle, and at the time of harvesting, hygienic and sanitary quality of the spinach by microbiological analysis and the content of iron and vitamins A and C were determined. The results indicate in both crop cycles that the organic greenhouse spinach production is feasible in this region, with yields exceeding 5000 g m-2 and suitable for human consumption according to the hygienic quality – healthcare obtained in compliance with current regulations. The obtained values of ascorbic acid and beta carotene were higher compared to the reference values of conventionally produced spinach. In all cases the contents of Ca, K, P, Zn and Fe were optimal for crop development.

Echophysiology of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata).

ADVANCES IN HORTICULTURE - REVIEW | Montoro, A., Ruiz, M.

Tags: super sweet corn, germination, density, nutrition, water stress

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Sweet corn has gene in recessive homozygosis, whose function is to retard or prevent the complete transformation of soluble sugars from grain to starch, being this the main difference with the grain maize. The objective of this review is to bring together the basic concepts related to ecophysiology of sweet and super sweet corn. Botanical characteristics of maize in general and the distinctive physiological properties of sweet and super sweet corn compared to corn grain are presented. From this point, and on the review presents the main ecophysiological variables that affect the growth and development of sweet and super sweet corn. Factors affecting germination and crop growth are considered, taking into account the plant density, nutritional, water and thermal requirements, with an special focus on the effect they have on the crop physiology of the crop when they are limiting.

Conservation i stresources for zucchini Family farming system on clayey oxisol.

HORTICULTURE | Fascin Berni, R.; Oliveira Cardoso, M.; Westphal Muniz, A.; Cohen Antônio, I.; Maia Chaves, F. C.

Tags: Cucurbita pepo L, soil minimum plowing, organic matter, mulching, mineral nitrogen, microbial biomass

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The raise in population of other Brazilian states in the Amazonas increased the demand for zucchini, making it an option for producers. The objective of this paper was to study zucchini crop (Cucurbita pepo L.), cv. Caserta, in family farming with the utilization of mulch, with and without mineral N, associated with the strip-tillage system in clayey Oxisol in the short season with low rain in Manaus-AM (07/2011 to 09/2011). The experimental design was a randomized block with six treatments and four replications [TEST–Without Flemingia coverage or dry grass, without urea; CS – With dry grass; F200 – with Flemingia coverage(200 L plot-1); F200/U10 – with Flemingia coverage (200 Lplot-1)+ urea (10 g hole-1); F200/U20– with Flemingia coverage (200 Lplot-1)+ urea (20 g hole-1); –F400 – with Flemingia coverage (400 Lplot-1)]. All treatments received a prior dose of P and K. The treatment F200/U20 exceeded the others in the number of fruits and had excellent fruit mass, with a production nearly three times as much as the average of the State of São Paulo. In general, the plants did not show nutritional problems. The CF increased the biomass and microbial activity of soil. Therefore, it is possible to add basis for a conservative land cultivation of zucchini without yield loss.

Evaluation of two Broccoli Hybrids (Brassica oleracea var. italica). Lerma valley, Salta, Argentina.

HORTICULTURE | Lozano, L.; Tálamo, A.; Artinian, A. L.; Fernández, J. y Arroyo, C.

Tags: broccoli, size, inflorescence, yield

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Broccoli is a vegetable whose production and consumption should be encouraged for its scientifically proven functional properties. It is rich in fiber, calcium and sulfur compounds which prevent colon cancer, arthritis and osteoporosis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the vegetative and reproductive behavior of Formoso and Legacy hybrids planted on June 10 2014 in trays and transplanted on July 29 in a completely randomized design with six replications. The heads were harvested from October 7 to November 13. The average height at transplant of Formoso was significantly higher than Legacy (p=0.01). The number of days for formation of pella and its insertion height were significantly higher in Legacy (p<0.0001). Formoso presented a larger number of florets by pella (p<0.0001) with diameter and weight at the harvest time higher than Legacy (p<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were observed in the height of the plant at 42 days of sowing (p=0.28) nor in the yield of both hybrids (p=0.09). However, Formoso is recommended for its precocity, better conformation of the head and a tendency to have higher performance, by adjusting the planting season for the purpose of mitigating the effects of high temperatures.

Effect of substrates and cell volume on the initial development of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. itálica)

HORTICULTURE | Rizzardi, M.V. y Bouzo, C.A.

Tags: Transplants develop and quality, shoot/root relation, substrates physical and chemical properties, grape pomace

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The effects of the combination of different substrates and cell volumes on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. itálica) transplants develop and quality was evaluated. The trials were arranged in a factorial pattern resulting from the combination of two different container size and seven substrates. The cell volumes were 22 cm3 and 32 cm3. A base substrate made with grape pomace was used as control; the other six were commercial mixes. Four physical and chemical properties were measured: i) electrical conductivity (dS·m-1); ii) pH; iii) apparent density (g·cm-3); iv) water-holding capacity (% w/w). These characteristics were later related to transplants’ root and shoot growth. Transplants growing in SSh3 and LF substrates presented a lower shoot/root relation expressed in dry weight, a major factor to consider for better crop results. Quality for transplants growing in SB substrate was poor, in order that they reached a lower size and a deficient rootball. A greater future development for SB substrate, to overcome some problems observed in this work, reveals good interest being considered that SB takes advantage of a voluminous residue from the winery industry in Cuyo region.

Characterization of antioxidant compounds present in celery at different stages

HORTICULTURE | Goñi, M.G.; Di Gerónimo, L.; Carrozzi, L.; Yommi, A. y Roura, S.I.

Tags: Quality, ascorbic acid, ripeness, polyphenols

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Celery is appreciated for its nutritional value. “Commercial maturity” is established by the size of the plant; however, the antioxidant content has an effect on the nutritional quality and should be considered when defining the time of harvest.cartier replica The objective was to characterize the antioxidant compounds present in celery stalks in three zones (outer, middle and inner) at different stages of development, to recommend the harvest-time that maximizes nutritional quality. Ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolic compounds, such as browning potential (PP) and quinones (QT) were meassured. The AA and PP decreased with ripening, following a linear trend in all three areas.replica watches The AA and PP were higher in the inner zone, while higher QT was observed in the inner and outer zones, remaining constant with ripening. From a nutritional standpoint, the inner zone is rich in antioxidants, but more prone to damage by changes in color. Zonification could affect the taste, astringency and hardness of each zone, considering the elaboration of minimally processed stalks.replica watches china Celery plants should be harvested before week 3 (94 days post-transplant) to maintain the nutritional value but considering the potential increase in browning.

Physicochemical properties of orange fruit cultivated at the central-east area of Santa Fe province (Argentina)

FRUTICULTURE | Alsina, D.; Nescier, I.; Santini, Z.; Gariglio, N. y Cives, H.

Tags: Citrus, juice

PDF 225.9 KB (15 downloads)

Fruit is a nutritious and attractive food, rich in vitamins, minerals and other healthful components. The aim of this study was to determine the physical properties of the fruit and the physicochemical characteristics of the juices fruit of three sweet orange varieties such as Valencia late (VL), Midknight (M) and Valencia seedless (VS), identifying the variables that best contribute to their differentiation. Forty orange fruit from 20 trees randomly selected were divided into four lots of ten fruits each. Fruit weight and diameter were measured in the fruit whereas juice volume, pH, electrical conductivity, soluble solids and acidity were measured in the juice. A completely randomized experimental design with four replicate per variety were used. Fruit weight did not show significant difference between varieties, but fruit diameter was significantly higher in VL (+3.6 mm than M and +7.6 mm in comparison with VS). The volume of the juice also was significantly higher in VL and VS in comparison with M (+35 and +19 % respectively). Juice physicochemical parameters showed no significant differences between varieties with the exception of the acidity; VL showed the highest content of citric acid while VS showed the lowest value (-10 %). Valencia late was the orange variety that showed the best fruit quality at the central area of Santa Fe. The variables fruit diameter, juice volume, and tiritable acidity, allowed the differentiation of the three oranges varieties.

Fertigation tomato protected: I- Nitrogen Nutrition. Effect on soil and production

HORTICULTURE | Alconada, M.; Cuellas, M.; Poncetta, P.; Barragán, S.; Inda, E. y Mitidieri, A.

Tags: Degradation, pollution, production

PDF 531.3 KB (53 downloads)

The protected cultivation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has drastic reductions in yield due to soil degradation that are linked to the management of fertilization,replica watches uk soil and water. Increase the use of agrochemicals in order to reverse the degradation, generating overfertilization, disequilibria nutritional and soil salinization. The objective was to study the evolution of NO3- in soiland its relationship to the quality and performance, with different fertigation schemes. In a typical Hapludert of Horticultural Belt of the Great La Plata, five treatments with different doses of N, P, K, Ca y Mg, are compared. The NO3- were evaluated in soil and soil solution. Early commercial and total production and fruit size was measured.fake watches In all treatments, there was an increase in soil NO3- toward the end of culture, differing among themselves 48 days from transplanting. Treatments differ significantly higher doses with lower doses of all treatments. Variations in fruit size or yield was not observed. The high surface concentrations led to high concentrations of NO3- in solution to 100 cm soil depth. The gross profit varied according to treatment among 3,861 y 11,580 U$D. The application of N without control of the real needs leads to productive inefficiency, economic and environmental.