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Potentiality in controlling nematode infection on tomato roots by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

HORTICULTURE | Mondino, E. A.; Thougnon Islas, A. J.; Covacevich, F.

Tags: mycorrhizal biocontrol, Meloidogyne incognita, inoculation

PDF 720.2 KB (21 downloads)

Our objective was to evaluate the suppression of root infection by the nematode Meloidogyne incognita in tomato roots previously colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (HMA) native of Buenos Aires Province. Tomato plants were inoculated at sowing with a consortiumcontaining HMA= HMA0, HMA50 and HMA100 corresponding to 0, 50% and 100% of substrate with HMA (8 replications). At 40 days, inoculated plants showed HMA colonization higher than 60%. Plants were transplanted and each treatment was inoculated or not with M. incognita (4 replications of each nematode inoculation treatment). At harvest (115 days of growth) plants inoculated with HMA without nematodes showed mycorrhizal colonization higher than 90%. Although plants inoculated with nematodes showed decreases of mycorrhizal colonization, the obtained levels were higher than colonization prior to transplant. Inoculation with HMA decreased both soil abundance of nematode larvae (j2) and number of root galls. Although aerial growth of tomato was not affected by inoculation (HMA or nematodes), HMA0 plants (independently of nematode inoculation) showed higher root growth, that can be considered a strategy of the plant in order to compensate the lower volume of root exploration in the absence of HMA hyphae. Our results showed reduction of nematode density (j2, galls and egg masses) after inoculation of tomato with HMA. It may be concluded that the adequate establishment of mycorrhizal colonization prior to infection with nematodes exerts an apparent control of the infection of the M. incognita nematode in tomato roots. It could be a strategic tool for the biological control of pathogens of horticultural crops.

Evaluation of yield and health parameters of two commercial tomato hybrids (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grafted on Solanun sisymbriifolium (Lam.), in a greenhouse with biosolarizated soil

HORTICULTURE | Mitidieri, M.S.; Piris, E.; Brambilla, V.; Barbieri, M.; Cap, G.; González, J.; Del Pardo, K.; Ciapone, M.; Celié, R.; Arpía, E.; Paunero, I.; Peralta, R.; Verón, R. y Sanchez, F.

Tags: Rootstock, biosolarization, Nacobbus aberrans, Fusarium spp

PDF 7.9 MB (16 downloads)

The use of plants grafted on resistant rootstocks can help to reduce losses caused by biotic and abiotic factors. This experience evaluated the performance of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (popularly named “tutiá”) as a rootstock in combination with two commercial tomato hybrids. Genetic materials evaluated were Elpida and Superman, grafted on “tutiá” (ELPg, SUPg) and the same materials without grafting (ELP, SUP). Plants were transplanted (august/2012) in a greenhouse into biosolarizated plots (treated November/2011) and into control plots without soil disinfection. A split splot experimental design with four replicates in blocks was used. ELP y SUP showed higher yields (kg·plant-1) (30.6 % higher general mean), than ELPg y SUPg. In control plots, grafted plants had better performance with means of ELPg = 4.53 ± 1.27, SUPg = 4.19 ± 1.49, SUP = 2.49 ± 0.28 and ELP = 1.89 ± 0.68. Grafted plants also showed less blossom end rot percentage (P < 0.01) and dead plants (DP) at the end of the crop cycle (P < 0.01) than no grafted plants, means for DP were SUPg = 18.80 ± 12.40, ELPg = 23.44 ± 7.55, SUP = 43.19 ± 9.64 and ELP = 46.00 ± 9.12. Roots of grafted plants had higher total dry matter weight (P < 0.05) and lower rots percentages (P < 0.01) caused by Fusarium spp., although gall number caused by Nacobbus aberrans did not differ. The use of Solanum sisymbriifolium as rootstock could be considered a tool for integrated tomato pest management.

Advances in genetic breeding for processing tomatoes

HORTICULTURE | Gallardo, G.S.; Masuelli, R. y Ferrer, S.

Tags: Genetic breeding, molecular biology, molecular markers

PDF 518 KB (20 downloads)

At the EEA La Consulta, INTA, a molecular assisted breeding program for processing tomatoes started in 2001 with the aim to generate self-pollinated cultivars, specially oriented for small growers. One of the main objectives of breeding program is the introduction of resistance to nematodes (Meloidoyne incognita, M. arenaria y M. javanica), tomato spotted wild virus (TSWV) and, tomato speck (Pseudomonas tomato syringae pv. tomato) as an alternative to use foreign and expensive hybrids cultivars. Breeding lines were obtained by pedigree and backcross selection methods.fake watches Early selection of resistant plants was done using molecular markers linked to nematode and TSWV. Molecular marker determinations were performed by the Laboratory of Molecular Biology of the INTA-Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (UNCuyo). Advanced breeding lines were tested against commercial hybrids in the Tomato 2000 Program. From all the materials evaluated up to 2010-11,a href="http://cartier-replicawatches.com" style="text-decoration:none">cartier replica we have identified homozygous lines that combine resistance to nematodes and tomato spotted wilt virus; homozygous lines that combine resistance to nematodes, tomato spotted wilt virus and tomato speck and homozygous lines resistant to nematodes, tomato spotted wilt virus and tomato speck (in separate genotypes). Also, heterozygous lines in different combinations for the genes under study. In comparative trials,fake watches the yiel (kg·ha-1) of the new lines did not have significant differences from controls. Horticultural recommendations are discussed.

Abstract of Aromatics and Floriculture - XXXV Argentinian Horticulture Congress

CONGRESSES |

PDF 684.5 KB (110 downloads)

Effect of different biofumigation treatment sequences on physicochemical and biological soil parameters', yield and saltry tomato and lettuce crop under cover

HORTICULTURE | Mitidieri, M.; Brambilla, V.; Saliva, V.; Piris, E.; Piris, M.; Celié, R.; Pereyra, C.; Del Prado, K.; Chaves, E. y González, J.

Tags: Nematodes, brassicae, soil borne diseases, Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium spp

PDF 1.2 MB (27 downloads)

In the last years, researchers from different countries have made efforts to develop environmentally responsible soil disinfection techniques. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different sequences of soil solarization and/or biofumigation (BIO).replica watches uk The treatments evaluated were the combination of two disinfections performed on spring 2003 and 2005. The sequences evaluated were: 1. Control/Control, 2. Solarization/Solarization, 3. BIO with Chicken manure/BIO with Brocoli, 4. BIO with Brassica napus/BIO with Brocoli. Nematode control was observed at the first 10 cm of soil, inmediately after BIO treatments, performed at november 2005, differences (P ≤ 5 %) between treatments and control were observed for Nacobbus aberrans until february 2007.replica watches Percentage of Sclerotium rolfsii colonies obtained from sclerotia was always higher at control plots, but at 35 cm the treatment effect was lower. Fusarium solani was obtained only at control plots at 10 cm but in all treatments at 35 cm. In november 2006 a tomato crop was planted. The number of dead plants at the end of the cycle was significantly higher at control plots. Significant differences (P ≤ 1 %) between treatments were obtained for total yield,replica watches uk yield losses, and losses percentage due to small fruits and blossom end rot. Control plots showed lower yields and higher commercial yield losses.fake watches After harvest significant differences were observed for gall number and percentage of root rots caused by Pyrenochaeta lycopersici and Fusarium solani.