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Horticulture (page 1 of 10)

Potentiality in controlling nematode infection on tomato roots by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

HORTICULTURE | Mondino, E. A.; Thougnon Islas, A. J.; Covacevich, F.

Tags: mycorrhizal biocontrol, Meloidogyne incognita, inoculation

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Our objective was to evaluate the suppression of root infection by the nematode Meloidogyne incognita in tomato roots previously colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (HMA) native of Buenos Aires Province. Tomato plants were inoculated at sowing with a consortiumcontaining HMA= HMA0, HMA50 and HMA100 corresponding to 0, 50% and 100% of substrate with HMA (8 replications). At 40 days, inoculated plants showed HMA colonization higher than 60%. Plants were transplanted and each treatment was inoculated or not with M. incognita (4 replications of each nematode inoculation treatment). At harvest (115 days of growth) plants inoculated with HMA without nematodes showed mycorrhizal colonization higher than 90%. Although plants inoculated with nematodes showed decreases of mycorrhizal colonization, the obtained levels were higher than colonization prior to transplant. Inoculation with HMA decreased both soil abundance of nematode larvae (j2) and number of root galls. Although aerial growth of tomato was not affected by inoculation (HMA or nematodes), HMA0 plants (independently of nematode inoculation) showed higher root growth, that can be considered a strategy of the plant in order to compensate the lower volume of root exploration in the absence of HMA hyphae. Our results showed reduction of nematode density (j2, galls and egg masses) after inoculation of tomato with HMA. It may be concluded that the adequate establishment of mycorrhizal colonization prior to infection with nematodes exerts an apparent control of the infection of the M. incognita nematode in tomato roots. It could be a strategic tool for the biological control of pathogens of horticultural crops.

Methodological proposal for the sustainability assessment in horticultural systems of the southeast of Buenos Aires

HORTICULTURE | Zulaica, L.; Manzoni, M.; Kemelmajer, Y.; Bisso Castro, V.; Padovani, B.; Lempereur, C. González Cilia, C.

Tags: sustainability indicators, productive periurban, horticulture, agro-ecology

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Sustainability indicators applied to agricultural production systems are useful tools to reverse critical situations. However, sustainability assessment methodologies are not widely applicable. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a methodological proposal to preliminarily assess sustainability in horticultural systems of the southeast of the province of Buenos Aires and especially of the productive periurban area of the city of Mar del Plata (General Pueyrredon district). Assuming a technical-professional approach and from the integration of inductive and deductive methods, background studies, direct observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants, criteria, indicators and categories applicable to the area of study were defined. Then, preliminary applications were made to two cases of the periurban area of Mar del Plata with different types of production: conventional and in agroecological transition. It is expected with this methodological proposal to provide a useful tool to identify the critical aspects in the development of horticultural activities in the periurban area of Mar del Plata and in the region, in order to revert situations of environmental conflict and contribute with strategies aimed at sustainability.

Effects of biostimulant applications on strawberry crop yield and quality

HORTICULTURE | Kirschbaum, D. S.; Heredia, A. M.; Funes, C. F.; Quiroga, R. J.

Tags: humic acids, Fragaria x ananassa, organic amendment, yield

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Argentina, one of the main South American strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) producers, shows an increasing trend to reduce the use of agrochemicals (pesticides and fertilizers), and incorporate bio-inputs. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of MO.14 (a liquid organic amendment, rich in humic and fulvic acids), applied alone or combined with a biological activator (Biomix), on the yield and fruit quality of four strawberry cultivars. A trial was carried out in the 2016 productive season and part of 2017, in Famaillá (Tucumán). Treatments: MO.14 (drench), MO.14 (drench) + Biomix (foliar) and untreated control (T). Cultivars: Benicia, Camino Real, Merced and San Andreas. Yield (total fruit weight/plant, Yld), number of fruits/plant (NF), marketable fruit average weight (MFAW) and percentage of rotten fruits (%RF) were evaluated. Experimental design: CRD with three replications of 30 plants per cultivar and treatment. Data were subjected to ANOVA. Treatments improved Yld and NF, but not %RF and MFAW (genotypic effects prevailed). MO.14 showed Yld and NF values higher than MO.14 + Biomix. Treatment-cultivar interactions were significant for NF. Regarding the cultivars, Merced stood out (Yld, MFAW). In May 2017, when the first harvests of the 2nd year started, biostimulants exceeded T in Yld. Biostimulant treatments could reduce the use of chemical fertilizers in strawberry, contributing to agroecosystem sustainability, although new studies (dose, concentration, number of applications) should validate that.

Influence of the fore crop on weeds community in direct seeding onion

HORTICULTURE | Avilés, L.M.; Baffoni, P.A.; Gajardo, O.A.; Alarcón, A.; Doñate, M.T.; Cañón, S.L.; Bezic, C.R. y Sidoti Hartman, B.

Tags: soybean, corn, carrot, tomato

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Onion plants (Allium cepa L.) have a low competitive capacity against weeds, so these must be controlled from the beginning of the crop cycle. Plant communities respond differently to the management practices used in the fore crops (eg. tillage and fertilization). The objective was to evaluate the effect of different fore crops on the weed communities in direct seeding onion crops. During the 2015/16 season, an onion crop was implanted in the Lower Valley of the Rio Negro by direct seeding in plots with different fore crops: tomato, soybean, corn and carrot. The emergence of weeds was evaluated 15 and 45 days after sowing (DAS). The weeds on the ridge were collected in a 30 x 30 cm frame to determine the number and biomass for each species, and to calculate the richness and diversity. Ten weed species were observed in a cotyledonal state at 15 DAS, without differences between treatments. At 45 DAS, Lamium amplexicaule L., Xanthium spinosum L., Polygonum aviculare L., Picris echinoides L., Sonchusasper L. and Echinochloa crus-galli L. were the most frequent species. The greatest richness, density and diversity was observed after rotation with tomato. The differential response of the weeds to the fore crops would help design the rotations for more efficient weed control in an onion crop.

Productivity of male green asparagus genotypes (Asparagus officinalis var. altilis L.) in their seventh year

HORTICULTURE | Romero, F.; Castagnino, A. M.; Díaz, K. E.; Guisolis, A.; Rosini, M. B.; Rogers, W. J.. Ex Aequo.

Tags: yield, spears, hybrids, seedlings, calibre

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Asparagus is a non-traditional perennial vegetable crop for which evaluation of the performance of different genotypes is required. With the aim of determining the productivity of a set of all-male genotypes from Italy, a trial was planted on 22/11/06 using large (PG) and small (PCH) seedlings. The following characters were evaluated: total (PFT) and commercial (PFC) fresh production, total (NTT) and commercial (NTC) spear number, calibre distribution (J: Jumbo; XL: Extra-Large; L: Large; M: Medium; S: Small and A: Asparagina), defects (DE: opened bracts; P: plague damage; and OD: other defects). Thirty-two harvests were carried out between 1/9/14 and 14/11/14. Data were analysed by ANOVA-LSD (P≥0.05). No significant differences were found between the two seedling sizes. From the thirty-two harvests, a mean productivity of 14.5t.ha-1 was obtained, with a commercial prime quality productivity of 5.4 t.ha-1. A total of 553,241 spears were obtained, of which 252,420 were of commercial prime quality, with an average weight of 21 g per spear. Regarding seedling size, no significant differences were found. The Italian genotypes performed better than the control genotype from the USA, with Eros outstanding for PFT, and Ercole, Eros, Italo and H-668 for PFC. For spears produced, significant differences were observed between hybrids: for NTT, Zeno, Eros, Ercole and H-668 stood out, while for NTC, Ercole. Regarding calibre distribution, Italo, UC-157, H-668, Zeno and Eros stood out for J; Eros, Italo, Zeno and H-668 for XL; Eros, Italo, Ercole and H-668, UC-157 and Zeno for L; Ercole, Eros and H-668, and UC-157 for M; UC157 and Ercole for S; and UC-157 and Ercole for A. In conclusion, all male hybrids represent a valuable production alternative.

Evaluation of the behavior of common bean cultivars and promising lines under natural virus infection

HORTICULTURE | Rodríguez Pardina P.E, Reyna, P, Campos R.E, Varela, G, Peña Malavera A., Gerónimo, L.M.

Tags: Phaseolus vulgaris L, viruses, incidence, disease severity

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Viral diseases can affect the stability of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production, therefore it was considered of interest to evaluate the behavior of different cultivars and promising lines obtained by the INTA breeding program against natural virus infection. Symptoms severity, incidence and relative concentration of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and geminiviruses were evaluated for 14 bean cultivars during three growing seasons. SMV and AMV were found in very low incidence during the three years. Differences in cultivar response were observed: L24 and L15 were tolerant to begomoviruses, while CR8, CR5, L22 (cranberry and white bean types) were susceptible. The most severe symptoms were found during the 2013 growing season, when a high incidence of begomovirus and CpMMV were observed. No differences between cultivars were found for CpMMV incidence, but a higher relative concentration of virus was detected in CR5, CR8 and L17. Although L15 was tolerant to geminiviruses, it was the most susceptible to CMV, a fact that must be taken into account because this virus is transmitted by seeds and might become a serious problem in bean production.

Effect of organic amendment on the performance of cabbage (Brássica oleracea L.)

HORTICULTURE | Armadans Rojas, A; Báez Martínez, Z; Britos, U; Ramírez González, R.; Ruiz Ginés, A.

Tags: diameter, fruit weight, yield, organic fertilizer, productivity

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The experiment was conducted in the district of Minga Guazú, Paraguay (25º29'04''S, 54º45'52'' W). The study evaluated the effect of two types of organic fertilizer (cow and hen manure) applied in different doses to cabbage (Brássica oleracea L.). The general objective was to determine the yield, weight and diameter of the fruit or head of the cabbage. The design used was completely randomized blocks with 5 treatments; T1: control (without any fertilization); T2: 3 kg.m-2 hen manure; T3: 5 kg.m-2hen manure; T4: 3 kg.m-2cow manure; T5: 5 kg.m-2 cow manure; and with 4 replicates totaling 20 experimental units. The evaluated variables were fruit weight and diameter, and yield (kg) per hectare. The values obtained were subjected to analysis of variance, and for mean comparison, the Tukey test at 5% probability of error was used. There was an effect due to the treatments on the studied variables. The largest fruit diameter corresponded to the T3 treatment with 20.68 cm, while the highest fruit weights corresponded to the T3 treatments (890.25 g) and T2 (701.25g). The highest yields corresponded to treatments T3 (7.05 kg.m2), T2 (5.59 kg.m-2) and T4 (4.37 kg.m-2).

Effects of the transplant date on the yield of onion cultivars in Paraguay

HORTICULTURE | Zarza Silva, H. A., Enciso Garay, C. R. y González Ferreira, F. N.

Tags: Allium cepa L, transplanting time, marketable yield

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The volume of onion production in Paraguay does not supply the domestic demand causingthe import of the product mainly from Argentina. The local research on onion cultivation is scarce and hinders the improvement of the national production.The effects of transplanting dates on onion cultivars performance are not well known in the Paraguayan environments. Therefore, seedlings of 17 onion cultivars weretransplanted on three different dates, May 24, June 26 and August 6, 2012, respectivelyin order to evaluate the effects on yield and quality of the bulbs. The trial was carried out in the experimental field of the "Hernando Bertoni" Research Center, Paraguayan Institute of Agrarian Technology, Caacupé, Paraguay. The experimental design used was the split-plot with three replications. The mass, total and commercial yield of onion bulbs were evaluated. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance and the comparison of means performed by the Tukey test at 5% of probability. The obtained results indicate that delaying the transplant date reduces the yield and mass of bulbs. The cultivars that recorded the highest yields and mass of bulbs on the first date of transplant were Aurora, Primavera, Bella Dura, Victoria, BaiaPeriforme, Rainha and Red Creole. On the second transplant date, the Aurora, Cascata and Yellow Grano cultivars, and on the last transplant date, the Cascata cultivar obtained higher yields, respectively.

Evaluation of squash´s cultivation starting techniques in Villa Mercedes, San Luis

HORTICULTURE | Luna, S. A.; Bazán, P. L.; Castagnino A. M.; Escudero A. S.; Martínez, A.N.; Funes, M. B.; Della Gaspera, P.

Tags: Direct seeding, Transplant, Production, Summer squash, Cucurbita

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Squash, summer squash or zucchini, is grown in the green belts and major vegetable areas of the country. It is an alternative for the area of Villa Mercedes, due to the great demand of the local consumerswhich is satisfied by the neighbor provinces productions.Traditionally, Cucurbitaceaeare direct seeded at the beginning of cultivation, however the transplanting system in pots  has been increasingly used for the advantages it offers. The objective of the trial was to evaluate two techniques of starting cultivation (direct seeding and transplanting) and their effect on the performance of different genetic materials.The two implantation techniques combined with five materials of zucchini were considered as treatments: ItalianoAlargado, Italiano Redondo, ItalianoOvalado, Nutri-C INTA andVeronés INTA.The experimental design was a factorial of implantation techniques and cultivars as treatments, established in a completely randomized plot structure (2m2of four plants). The yields obtained were statistically analyzed through the InfoStat program. It was demonstrated that the best culture starting technique was by transplanting, regardless of the materials used. The material with the highest yield was Veronés INTA summer squash initiated through the pot technique and subsequent transplant with an average performance of 21.5 kilograms per plot. 

In vitro efficacy of antiseptics to sterilize tools used to make grafts in walnut

HORTICULTURE | Kaen, R.; Latorre Mejia, M.; Caseres, A.; Seleme, F.

Tags: Agrobacterium, graft, walnut

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It was observed in the walnut nursery of Valle Viejo department - Catamarca, symptoms coinciding with those caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens circumscribed to the area of ​​the graft. The transmission of the pathogen causing these gills can be by means of tools during the grafting work. The nurserymen disinfect the tools with sodium hypochlorite between 2 and 5%, with the difficulty of deteriorating the blades, leaving them blunt. The objective of the present work was to corroborate the presence of the pathogenic organism that causes the gills observed, and to test, in the laboratory, the effectiveness of different tool disinfectant products. The bacterium was isolated by planting small pieces of gills in two different culture media: Nutritive Agar (AN) and Agar extract of yeast dextrose calcium carbonate (YDC). The ability of four antiseptics to disinfect the graft blade was also evaluated: Sodium Hypochlorite, Glutaraldehyde, 70 ° Alcohol and Quaternary Ammonium, at different concentrations, for 10 and 30 s. Colonies corresponding to A. tumefaciens were isolated and the pathogenicity tests on tomato seedlings reproduced the symptoms. The re-isolations confirm A. tumefaciens as causal agent of the gills in the walnut seedlings examined. The glutaraldehyde at 2% has an efficiency of 100% when submerging 10 s the tool. The glutaraldehyde does not oxidize the tools and does not remove the edge, an advantage over the hypochlorite rejected by the operators because it deteriorates the tools and they must be replaced more frequently.