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Fruticulture (page 1 of 3)

Micrographic characterization of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) and its application in food botanical quality

FRUTICULTURE | Gimenez, L. A. S.; Vignale, N. D. y Gurni, A. A.

Tags: mild dissociation, scraping, histochemical reaction, micrographic identifiers, genuine foods

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Passiflora edulis Sims, “maracuyá” (passion fruit), is a globally consumed tropical fruit that can be eaten raw (fresh) or processed. The aim of the current work is to establish its micrographic diagnostic values, permitting botanical quality control to be carried out of commercial products derived from the fruits, thereby incorporating added value. Micrographic techniques were applied such as mild dissociation (5% NaOH at 100° for 5 min), scraping and a histochemical reaction with dissolution of Lugol for starch. The micrographic features found were unicellular, conical, rigid hairs wide at the base (70.75 µm), groups of irregular-shaped sclereids (25.08 µm), clusters of calcium oxalate (17.17 µm), thickened parenchymal cells and starch grains (8.37 µm), the final item comprising a complementary reference used only when no thermal actions were involved in product elaboration. Columnar sclereids are also present in the seeds. Most of the products presented botanical quality, with the exception of one in which characters of diagnostic value of the fruit of the pear were identified. These are indispensable characters for verifying the true nature of foods made with "passion fruit".

Optimization of osmotic dehydration combined with hot air drying of European plum

FRUTICULTURE | Veloso, M.E., Pérez de Villarreal, A.A., Núñez, M.M., Pagano, A.M.

Tags: Prunus domestica, osmosis, prunes, osmo-dehydrated products, combined methods, surface response

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The osmotic dehydration (DO) of European plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv. President combined with a final stage of hot-air drying (SAC) at 70°C to a final humidity of 20% wet basis was studied. The fresh fruits were pitted and cut into 8 wedges, and then immersed in sucrose solutions of different concentrations (C: 40, 50 and 60 º Brix) during different times (t: 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min). The kinetics of the process was evaluated through monitoring the content of soluble solids (SS) and moisture (M), weight variation (WR), soluble solids gain (SG) and water loss (WL). The analysis of the variance (a = 0.05) showed the effect of t on WL and SG, as well as the influence of the interaction t´C on WR. Using the response surface methodology (RSM), the predictive polynomials of the main variables WL and SG were obtained. The optimization performed by means of desirability analysis applied to maximize WL determined the stationary points t=113 min, C=59.9 °Brix, exactly matching the optimum for SG maximization, thus defining the optimum conditions for maximum dehydration and incorporation of sugars that contribute to product conservation.

Detection and virus monitoring in stone fruit pomological collections in Buenos Aires province

FRUTICULTURE | Arroyo, L.E. y Valentini, G.H.

Tags: DAS-ELISA, peach, nectarine, plum, ilarvirus

PDF 440.2 KB (28 downloads)

In order to improve the quality of stone fruit propagation material, the San Pedro Experiment Station began a program of diagnosis and monitoring of its collections, in order to know its status regarding  three Ilarvirus and one Potyvirus, and to identify healthy varieties. The diagnosis was made using the DAS-ELISA technique, with the recommended protocol for the corresponding kits. Samples were analyzed in duplicate and the results were read on a Multiskan MS Labysistem reader. Absorbance readings (A 405) greater than three times the mean of the healthy controls were considered positive. Consistent composite samples of 8 leaves / 2 plants / variety selected from the four main branches were analyzed. PNRSV had an approximate average incidence of 30%, in the different collections monitored. PDV and ApCLSV were detected in less than 5%. No varieties or hybrids were affected by PPV or ApMV. 38 varieties of peach, 25 of nectarine and 37 of plum were negative to the analyzed viruses.

Strawberry crop evolution in province of Santa Fe (Argentina) in the last 50 years

FRUTICULTURE | Sordo M. H.; Travadelo M., Pernuzzi C.

Tags: Fragaria ananassa, Coronda (San Jerónimo- Santa Fe), macrotunnels, incremental innovation, production, technologies

PDF 777.2 KB (65 downloads)

The cultivation of strawberries (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) is carried out in Coronda and La Costa Areas in the province of Santa Fe (Argentina), where there are also numerous agroindustries dedicated to the processing of the fruit. The object of the following study focuses on analysing the evolution in the cultivation of strawberries in the different production areas, in order to know the aspects that have defined it, as well as its relationship with other local crops. Census information from a survey of strawberry producers in the period 1994-2015 was used. A survey in 2014 recorded 103 producers in Coronda and 38 in the Coast. The introduction of innovative technologies such as varieties, macrotunnels, specific treatments, among other technologies has enabled a significant increase in productivity, from 2,000 kg ha-1 to 60,000 kg ha-1 between 1964 and 2014.

Crop load regulation in cherries Royal Dawn: effect on yield, vegetative growth and fruit quality.

FRUTICULTURE | Rodríguez, M. E.; Podestá, L.

Tags: Prunus avium, dormant pruning, spur extinction

PDF 573.5 KB (23 downloads)

In Mendoza province, Argentina, sweet cherries cv. Royal Dawn have been introduced recently, however no published data exist of this cultivar performance under Mendoza agroclimatic conditions. The aims of this work were to characterize the productive performance and to evaluate the effect of crop load regulation on yield, through dormant pruning and fruit spur, shoot growth and fruit quality as well. In a four-year-old plantation, crop load management was studied in the first year. In the second year the treatments were: dormant pruning (P, 35% of fruiting wood was eliminated); dormant pruning+30% fruit spur extinction (P+E30%); dormant pruning+50% fruit spur extinction (P+E50%) and 30% fruit spur extinction (E30%). In the third year, shoot growth was measured in each treatment. In year 1 total yield was high but 99.86% of the fruit was small (≤24mm) and not exportable. In P+E30% and P+E50% treatments, total yield was reduced significantly compared with P and E30% treatments. All crop load regulation treatments improved fruit size distribution and increased the proportion of fruits >24 mm. In P+E30% and P+E50% small fruit (≤24 mm), was reduced to very low levels: 3.68% and 1.92% respectively and yield of fruit >28mm was also promoted to 18.05%. In the treatment of lower crop load P+E50%, the highest shoot growth was obtained. Royal Dawn is a productive sweet cherry cultivar, in Mendoza, under favorable agroclimatic conditions. In crop load regulation treatments, where vegetative growth is high, a large number of high quality fruit is obtained. 

New posharvest technology of strawberries disinfection by peracetic acid fogging.

FRUTICULTURE | Van de Velde, F.; Vaccari, M.C.; Piagentini, A.M. y Pirovani, M.E.

Tags: microbiological quality, bioactive compounds, total phenols, total anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, fruit quality

PDF 406.3 KB (100 downloads)

The postharvest disinfection by applying sanitizers by nebulization could be a promising technology to extend the storage period of fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) The objective of this work was to model and optimize the operation of disinfection of fresh strawberries by nebulization with an ecological commercial disinfectant based on peracetic acid (PAA), aiming to reach microbiological reductions and not to alter the general quality, the content of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the fruit. The disinfection of fruits of the ‘Camarosa’ variety was studied in a specially designed chamber, varying the concentration (3.4, 20.0, 60.0, 100.0 and 116.6 μL APA 5% per liter of air) and treatment time (5.7, 15.0, 37.5, 60 and 69.3 min). The count reduction of total mesophilic aerobic microorganisms and yeast and molds of nebulized strawberries was greater as PAA concentration and treatment time increased. However, PAA oxidizing properties negatively impacted on anthocyanins and total phenols, vitamin C, antioxidant capacity and color of the fruits, to varying degrees, depending on the spraying conditions. The optimization of fogging operation based on a microbiological reduction target of 2.0 log cycles, maximum retention of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity and no change in color, allowed to determine conditions of optimal treatment: 10.1 uL PAA / L air and 29.6 min. Additional experiments at these conditions validated the methodology. This postharvest disinfection treatment would allow obtaining strawberries with microbiological quality up to 7 days at 2ºC without affecting their sensory quality and bioactive properties.

Selection of natives fruits of Uruguay

FRUTICULTURE | Vignale, B.; Cabrera, D.; Rodríguez, P.; Machado, G.

Tags: biodiversity, selections plants, characterization, evaluation

PDF 574 KB (50 downloads)

In Uruguay, there are native tree species that produce edible fruits, highly appreciated by local people. Currently, these fruits participate poorly in the food chain, although recently their cultivation, use and commercialization have increased. The Faculty of Agronomy, Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria and Ministerio de Ganadería Agricultura y Pesca, have developed a native fruit selection program, along with other institutions, social actors and people in general. The program is based on the prospection and collection of interesting material, that are grown in Introduction Gardens and farmer lands, where they are characterized and evaluated. At the same time, a controlled pollination program is being conducted, with the objective of complementing desirable characteristics. Five of the ten species studied are highlighted, feijoa (Acca sellowiana Berg Burret), Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.), strawberry guava (Psidium cattleyanum Sab.), guaviyú (Myrcianthes pungens Berg Legr.) and cereza de monte (Eugenia involucrata L.). There have been important improvements on the characterization, evaluation and studies on the biodiversity. At present, the program counts with plant selections. On the other hand, protocols of industrialization have been developed, formation and promotion seminaries, agroecological projects, home and school gardens and regional projects. Deepening on the valorization description of native fruit trees will help their development and conservation in a sustainable way.

Predictive logistic models of citrus canker in Bella Vista and their use in the spanish citrus area

FRUTICULTURE | Moschini, R.C.;Canteros, B.I.; Marcó, G. y Cazenave, G.

Tags: Climate risk

PDF 160.8 KB (25 downloads)

Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, is an endemic and quarantine disease in northeastern Argentina. Mid-season fruit canker intensity observations (1991-2008) in grapefruit cultivar in Bella Vista (Corrientes), were binary and ordinal categorized. From daily weather elements moisture and temperature variables were calculated in time periods beginning after accumulating 372 degree-days (DD) since 10 July, and fini-shing when the sum reached 985 DD (base Td = 12.5 °C) and from 930 DD to 1175 DD, respectively. The best logistic regression models included the effect of the interaction between DPr (days with precipitation > 12 mm) and DPTxn (days with maximum temperature ≤ 28 °C and minimum ≥ 14 °C ) with prediction accuracies of 94.4 % (binary) and 83.3 % (ordinal). Both logistic models were run in 14 sites of Spain and in Bella Vista, from 1980 to 2008. DPr was the most limiting weather factor for the bacterial expression in the spanish citrus sector, reaching a median value of zero in areas of high production. The temperature factor was clearly favorable for the disease progress. The effect of the interactive component (DPr*DPTxn) reduced dominantly to zero the probability that disease reach moderate to severe levels in Spain, differing with 51.7 % of the years in Bella Vista.

Use of anti-hail nets to reduce sunburn damage in apple (Malus domestica Borkh) fruits at the Río Negro upper valley

FRUTICULTURE | Raffo, M.D.; Cortona, A.;Curetti, M.; Menni, F. y De Angelis, V.

Tags: Solar radiation, fruit quality

PDF 344.5 KB (39 downloads)

Damages by sunburn are relevant at the principal apples and pears growing regions around the world. Local assessments indicated losses of export quality apple fruits between 15 and 55 % depending on the variety, during the 2002-03 growing season, determining a substantial decline in both the quantity and quality of exportable and marketable fruit. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of black and crystal hail nets on the percentages and level of sunburn damage, the quality and performance of Chañar 90 and Pink Lady cultivars. The study was performed during two seasons in a plot located at INTA experimental station, in Río Negro province, Argentina. Intensity of solar radiation and temperature as well as fruit temperature were measured in all treatments (black and crystal meshes and control without net). The yield (kg·tree-1), size fruit distribution in different commercial categories, the rate and degree of sunburn (mild and severe) and fruit maturity indices (soluble solids, firmness, starch degradation and percentage coverage) were evaluated at harvest time. The use of black anti-hail nets and crystal in a lesser extent decreased the rate and severity of sunburn in both varieties without affecting the internal parameters of fruits quality. A higher proportion of large fruit in crystal nets was observed in both varieties, while black meshes resulted in a reduction in fruit size only in the Pink Lady cultivar.

Effect of calcium fertilization on yields and fruit size in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.)

FRUTICULTURE | Flores, D.A.; Vázquez, M.E.; Mildemberg, J.C. y Beltrano, J.

Tags: Lignosulfonate, chelate, gypsum

PDF 123.8 KB (67 downloads)

The effect of different calcium fertilizers and doses on yield and fruit size were studied in blueberry cv. O’Neal. One field experiment was carried out to evaluate these effects, on 5 years old plants growing on Typic Argiudoll soil with pH 5.3. Before planting were added peat, perlite and sulfur. These elements reduced soil pH until 4.6, and soil exchangeable Ca was 6.6 cmolc·kg-1. A randomized complete blocks design was used, with the following treatments: T, witness; Q, chelate of Ca (610 g Ca·ha-1), S, lignosulfonate of Ca (1.143 g Ca·ha-1), Y, gypsum (46.500 g Ca·ha-1), applied to soil, each one with three replications. The Q and S treatments were applied two times a week from the floration period until the end of harvest, while Y treatment was applied once at early spring. Yields increased with Y treatment, while fruit size increased in all Ca treatments.