Advances in Horticulture - Review (page 1 of 2)

Quantitative determination of macronutrients (NPK) in leafy vegetables in marketed in free trade fairs

ADVANCES IN HORTICULTURE - REVIEW | Dos Santos Viana, J.; Nascimento Gomes, A. M.; Nahuz Lourenço, M. S.; Chagas Filho, E.

Tags: vegetables, food preference, nutritional quality

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The search for good quality hardwood vegetables has grown, and consumers are becoming increasingly demanding as to the appearance, color and size of these products. Chemical quality is one of the main programs used in food control. The objective of this paper was to determine the macronutrient contents in leafy vegetables marketed in open fairs in the city of São Luís. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory of mineral nutrition of plants of the engineering nucleus of the State University of Maranhão. From a universe of 14 hardwood vegetables, six of the highest consumption in five free fairs through the application of questionnaires, were selected. Sulfuric digestion/ hydrogen peroxide and P and K determined the N contents by nitroperchloric digestion. The six leafy vegetables selected were: Lactuca sativa, Allium schoenoprasum, Coriandrum sativum, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Talinum triangulare and Hibiscus sabdariffa. It was verified that the regional vegetables are the most consumed by the population, with emphasis on the non conventional vegetables Hibiscus sabdariffa and Talinum triangulare. The results obtained in the chemical analyses showed potassium and phosphorus deficiency for the samples of Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleraceacapitata in the five fairs studied, indicating inadequate mineral fertilization (excess or deficiency) of these vegetables. While for other unconventional vegetables, more studies are necessary because literature is deficient in information about them.

Fresh fruit and vegetables wholesale markets in Argentina from the social field perspective

ADVANCES IN HORTICULTURE - REVIEW | Viteri, M. L., Campetella, A. L.

Tags: Commercialization, social actors, food

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Fresh fruit and vegetable wholesale markets are known as very important places for economy and society. However, little attention has been paid to them in food studies or political spheres. This lack of wholesale markets` visibility has implications in improving the circulation of healthy foods such as fruit and vegetables. Wholesale markets play an important role as price makers between production and consumption. Wholesale markets link the production of different geographical areas and supply urban consumers of different communities where they are situated. By using qualitative survey, this paper analyses the situation of Argentinean Wholesale Markets nowadays. Wholesale market different aspects were taken into account: market organization (public, private, etc.);building infrastructure (types of floors, internal streets, market access); technology and control (devices to load and unload merchandise, cold chambers, etc.); social actors involved in different activities-including price publishing and trainings (wholesale sellers, civil servants, employees, clients, suppliers, etc.); network (retailers, wholesalers, horticultural associations, consumers, etc.); integration with local production (geographical location of the market, sales volume of local products with respect to extra premises, etc.). The objective of the paper is to know the general state of wholesale markets in Argentina. The information gathered in this survey can be key input to delineate guidelines and state regulations that consolidate these markets as articulating axes between the production and consumption of fruits and vegetables nationwide. Policymakers should agree with all the actors involved in the productive and commercial fruit and vegetable networks to innovate these spaces according to their multiple perspectives and strategies.

Echophysiology of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata).


Tags: super sweet corn, germination, density, nutrition, water stress

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Sweet corn has gene in recessive homozygosis, whose function is to retard or prevent the complete transformation of soluble sugars from grain to starch, being this the main difference with the grain maize. The objective of this review is to bring together the basic concepts related to ecophysiology of sweet and super sweet corn. Botanical characteristics of maize in general and the distinctive physiological properties of sweet and super sweet corn compared to corn grain are presented. From this point, and on the review presents the main ecophysiological variables that affect the growth and development of sweet and super sweet corn. Factors affecting germination and crop growth are considered, taking into account the plant density, nutritional, water and thermal requirements, with an special focus on the effect they have on the crop physiology of the crop when they are limiting.

Physiological requirements and technological restrictions for sweet pepper cropping.

ADVANCES IN HORTICULTURE - REVIEW | Ludvik, B.; Giardina, E.; Di Benedetto, A.

Tags: intensive cropping, crop ecophysiology, growth, development, yield

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The genotypic sweet pepper offer is wide and allows adaption of the commercial crop to different environmental and cultural facilities. However, the choice of a specific pepper genotype with the objective to optimize crop yield requires the knowledge of the endogenous and technological factors involved. Sweet pepper seed price is high while seed germination is slow and heterogeneous which force commercial growers to change the direct sowing for a transplant routine. However, plug trays give different abiotic stresses related to both the cell volume and the growing media quality in vegetables. Vegetative growth rate in sweet pepper is low and limited by the rate of leaf area expansion, which is limited by both the development processes temperature-dependent and the biomass accumulation processes limited by the light photosynthetic flux, water and minerals. Sweet pepper plants flower early and blooming is temperature-dependent. If the grower´s objective is to reach the highest sweet pepper yield per unit area and time, it is critical to know the physiological mechanisms involved which affect the rates of growth and development at different plant stages. In the present paper, the available bibliography related to the physiological processes that control pepper growth and development are compiled. The related available crop technology has been included as well.

Effects of the application of amendments and irrigation management on yield and quality of lettuce under greenhouse conditions

ADVANCES IN HORTICULTURE - REVIEW | Lang, M.C.; Lipinski, V. y Balcaza, L.F.

Tags: Gypsum, sulphur, clay, water quality, infiltration, hydraulic conductivity

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Accumulation of salts and sodium in the soil for the continued use of poor quality water affects the structural stability, hydraulic conductivity and infiltration rate of the soil, causing a reduction in their productive capacity. In the greenhouse, all water must be provided in the form of irrigation, so it is important to know the water quality to be used. This is defined in terms of salinity, sodicity and toxicity. There are records reporting changes in the chemical properties of soils irrigated with water of questionable quality. According to these, the use of such water brings about changes in physical and chemical properties of soil. The higher the SAR, the lower is the hydraulic conductivity and decrease soil infiltration and surface crust appears damaging the germination and crop emergence. Lettuce is moderately resistant to salinity, although in greenhouses, the development of the crop can be affected by the increase in soluble salts. Saline-sodic soils can be restored using chemicals amendments. These counteract the increased levels of sodium and stabilize the soil structure.

The Jerusalem artichoke crop: an overview ecophysiology and management


Tags: Helianthus tuberosus L, tubers, photoperiod, crop management

PDF 383.6 KB (61 downloads)

Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) belongs to the Asteraceas family. This specie is reproduced in an agamic way and produces tubers (underground stems) that are used for the plant propagation. It usually sprouts in spring and develops a large overhead structure with several stems and branches, reaching up to 4 meters in heigh. Thereafter, it produces tuberization and the overhead structure dies. Planting is done in winter at a density of 20,000 to 50,000 plants·ha-1 and the recommended depth is between 10 to 15 cm. In Jerusalem artichoke, main plant development phases are: rhizomes formation, tuberization, flowering and senescense. They are affected by weather conditions, such us temperature, radiation and photoperiod, being the latter the most important because it affects vegetative growth and tubers maturation. Although Jerusalem artichoke is very resistant to drought, tuber yield is affected by water deficit, especially if it occurs at flowering or during tubers growth. Crop water requirements is 1,250 mm. Jerusalem artichoke is very efficient in nutrient uptake.

Effect of sowing date and plant density of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) on yield, its components and seed quality


Tags: ecophysiology, harvest index, germination, weight of thousand seeds

PDF 682.7 KB (71 downloads)

The seeds of the Apiaceae have a slow and uneven emergence harming the productivity of crops. This inconvenience is caused in part by its indeterminate flowering habit and the presence of inhibitors. A species of this family with medicinal and spices properties is the cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), traditionally cultivated in countries of northern Africa and eastern Mediterranean. In Argentina it is planted in Catamarca, Salta and La Rioja, by about 750 families of smallholders. Agricultural Experiment Station INTA of Sumalao in Catamarca provides cumin seeds to the production area. Globally, important advances in production techniques and seed management have been achieved in several species of this family. However in the particular case of cumin seed production, there are few research papers trying to find answers to this problem and to suggest management guidelines to minimize the negative aspects in order to obtain high yields of better quality seed. The sowing date and plant density on cumin are matters of great importance in seed production because they cause significant morphological changes in this species. It is necessary to obtain an appropriate balance between sowing date and plant density for reaching seed lots of high yield and good quality. The objective of this review is to provide an analysis of management guidelines concerning the sowing date and plant density of cumin emphasizing the effect in the yield, its components and seed quality.

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The horticultural use of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) has not been spread in Argentina. The young cladodes are rich in calcium (Ca) and fibers; and besides their nutritional qualities they have medicinal properties that help to control obesity, hyperglycemia in blood, cholesterol, etc. They can also be consumed raw in salads, but most people prefer them stewed and combined with other foods like eggs, peppers, shrimps, etc. and even in sauces. In this bibliographical review, morphologic and physiological aspects of the opuntias are considered in their ecological adjustment. The main factors that affect the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the accumulation of biomass are analyzed. They are: water content in the soil, air temperature, light and soil elements. The great adjustment of the opuntias to different climatic and soil conditions, granted by their morphologic and physiological characteristics should stimulate their culture with commercial aims, especially at the Calchaqui valley and in the Puna, helping the farmers with the culture and harvest techniques, and food preparations with a high nutritional value.

Lettuce quality as affected by preharvest and postharvest


Tags: Leafy vegetable, environmental factors, production technology, postharvest behaviour

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The characteristics and the quality of vegetable crops during storage are influenced by the environmental conditions and the production technology. Some preharvest factors are closely bound and others act in an independent form. To provide high quality and value added to the product during the year, it is required high quality material and optimization in the different postharvest stages. Quality of vegetable product is affected by intrinsic factors, such as size, variety and maturation stage, like for extrinsic factors, temperature, processing, relative humidity and fresh-cut vegetable volume.

Dihaploids, a biotechnological strategy for the genetic improvement in onion (Allium cepa)

ADVANCES IN HORTICULTURE - REVIEW | Foschi, M.L.; Martínez, L.; Ponce, M.T. y Galmarini, C.R.

Tags: Colchicine, amiprophos-methyl (APM), haploids

PDF 1.8 MB (45 downloads)

The lines used for onion hybrid production are partially homozygous due to the existence of endogamy depression during selfing. The production of haploid plants through in vitro gynogenesis, and later chromosome doubling allows reaching complete homozygosis. There are several factors that influence onion gynogenesis like, the genotype of the donor plant, the conditions and media of the growth culture. The duplication of chromosome number is a necessary step once obtained the haploid embryos, because spontaneous doubling is very low. There are several antimitotic substances that can be used for chromosome doubling, among them colchicine and APM, both with 70 % of efficiency, and others like oryzalin and trifluralin. The principal factors that affect doubling techniques are: the explant type, the antimitotic substances used, the duration and conditions under which the treatments are performed. For these reasons is necessary to optimize the duplication methods adjusting the concentration used and the duration of the treatments. This technique step represents today one of the main constraints for use in the improvement plans.